ICT Keywords

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No. Keyword(s) Referring to:
1. Computer Generations 1st generation (1940 – 1956)

  • Huge, slow, expensive, unreliable
  • Presper Eckert & William Maunchly built ENIAC (use vacuum tube)
  • Problem with vacuum tube – generates great deal of heat, burns out frequently

 2nd generation (1956 – 1963)

  • Uses transistors which were smaller than vacuum tubes, no need warm up time, consumed less energy, generate less heat, faster and more reliable.
  • Famous computer scientists: John Bardeen, Walter House Brattain, William Shockley

3rd generation (1964 – 1971)

  • IBM 370 series were introduced in 1964. Also CDC 7600 and B2500
  • Development of Integrated circuit begins.
  • Use silicon chips – reliable, compact, cheaper
  • Hardware and software sold separately.
  • First 256 bit RAM were introduced and was the basis for development of 1K bit RAM.

4th generation (1971 – present)

  • Famous computer scientists: Steve Jobs (built the 1st Apple computer), Bill Gates, Michael Dell
  •  Silicone chips, microprocessor, storage devices were invented.
  • Computer became 100 times smaller than ENIAC.
  • Gain in speed, reliability and storage capacity
  • Personal and software industry bloomed.

5th generation (Present – beyond)

  • Based on Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  • New hardware technology was introduce: Silicone chips,Processor,Robotics,Virtual reality,Intelligent system,Programs which translate languages
2. Positive impact of ICT on the society The six positive impacts: Faster communication speedLower communication cost

Reliable mode of communication

Effective sharing of information

Paperless environment

Borderless communication.

3. Negative impact of ICT on the society The two negative impacts:Social problemsHealth problems
4. Why ethics and law in computing is needed? Respecting ownership– not steal other people’s work either by duplicating or distributingRespecting privacy and confidentiality– refraining oneself from invading other’s privacy without permission.Respecting property – do not tamper and change electronic information.
5. Intellectual property protection Patent for inventions: utility, design, plant patent, (protect inventions and improvements)Trademark for brand identity: Words, names, symbols, devices, images (represent products, goods or services)Copyright for material : Literary and artistic material, music, films, sounds recording and road casts

Design for product appearance: particular lines, contours, colour, shape, texture, ornamentations.

6. Methods of authentications authentications– a process where users verify their identity.2 types:Biometric devices – a device that translate personal characteristic into digital code

  • Fingerprint recognition
  • Facial recognition
  • Hand geometry scanning
  • Iris scanning (the area near to the coloured area of the pupil)
  • Retinal scanning (the eyeball)
  • Voice recognition
  • Signature verification system.

Callback system – checking system that authenticates the user. (Commonly used in the bank operation and business transaction.)

  • When book the taxi service
  • Operator call and call back for confirm the service required.
7. Methods of verification Verification– the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification.2 common methods:User identification – show passport, key-in user name & password, show exam slip.

Processed object – swipe security card to enter building, police check the driver’s license to identify valid driver.

8. Controversial content Pornography– any form of media or material that depicts erotic behavior and is intended to cause sexual excitement.Slander – legal term for false and malicious statement.
9. Internet filtering 3 common methods:Keyword blocking– uses a list of banned words to filter access to the siteWebsite / site blocking – uses software to prevent access to any sites on the list

Web rating system – browser gain access to a certain level of ratings

10. Cyber law acts in Malaysia Digital Signature Act 1997– secures electronic communications especially on the internet.Computer Crimes Act 1997– gives protection against misuse of computers and computer criminal activities.Telemedicine Act 1997 – Ensure only qualified medical practitioners can practice telemedicine.

Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 – ensures that information is secure, network is reliable, and service is affordable all over Malaysia.

11. Computer Crimes Computer Fraud– intention to take advantage or causing loss (mainly monetarily basis)Copyright Infringement– involves illegal copy or reproduction of copyright material by black market groupComputer Theft – unauthorized use of another person’s property

Computer Attack – to disrupt the equipment of computer systems …

12. Computer Security Hardware Security– measure used to protect the computer hardwareSoftware and Data Security– measure used to protect software and the loss of data filesNetwork Security – measure used to protect the network system.
13. Security Threat Malicious code

  • Virus – a program that can pass in the malicious code to other programs by modifying them
  • Trojan Horse – a program which can perform useful and unexpected action
  • Logic Bomb – that goes off when a specific condition occurs
  • Trapdoor or Backdoor – a program that allows someone to access the program with privileges
  • Worm – a program that copies and spreads itself through a network

Hacker – unauthorised person who access (hack) into computer

Natural and environmental threat – flood, fire, earthquake

Theft – steal money, goods, information and resources.

14. Security Measures Data backup – a program of file duplication. It is necessary so that they can be recovered in case of an emergencyCryptography– process of hiding information by altering the actual information into different representation.Antivirus – program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in the computer memory, storage or incoming email files.

Anti-spyware – program used to remove spyware.

Firewall – hardware or software which functions in a networked environment to prevent some communications forbidden by the security policies.

  • Screening router
  • Proxy gateway
  • Guard

Human aspect – refer to the user and also the intruder of a computer system.

  • Organisation self awareness – aware of the people they work with
  • Organisation user self awareness – provide employee with adequate training and importance of security and control
  • Individual user self awareness – aware of software from unreliable sources. Do not expose important information to stranger.
15. Security Procedures Data Protection

  • Backup files
  • Detect virus and do cleanup
  • Warn others on virus attack.

Detecting illegal access to systems

  • Tcpwrappers – control access at the application level rather than at socket level.
  • Tripwire – detect and report on any changes in the thousands of strategic system files.

Preventing illegal access to system

Preventing illegal access to root

Patch – small updates to software



Learning Area Two – Computer System

No. Keyword(s) Referring to:
1. Computer System Hardware + Software + User
2. Computer Hardware Input Devices– texts, graphics, audio, videoOutput Devices – texts, graphics, audio, animations, videoStorage Devices – Primary (RAM & ROM), Secondary (Magnetic, Flash, Optical, ROM)

Processor – the main brain in the system unit

3. Computer Software System Software – Operating System (Linux, Window XP, Mac OS X, Window Vista) & Utility program (Antivirus, File Manager, Screen Saver, Diagnostic utility)Application Software

  • Word Processing – Corel Word Perfect, Microsoft Word, Sun StarOffice Writer
  • Spreadsheet – Corel Quattro Pro, Microsoft Excel, Sun StarOffice Calc
  • Presentation – Corel Presentations, Microsoft PowerPoint, Sun StarOffice Impress
  • Graphics editing – Adobe Photoshop CS2, CorelDraw, Macromedia Freehand, Gimp
  • Software Suite – collection of individual program sold as a single package
4. Information processing diagram
5. Machine cycle diagram ­
6. Data representation 8 bits = 1 byte = 1 character
7. Character codes ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

  • Pronounced as ASK-KEY
  • Most widely used coding system to represent data
  • Used mostly in PC and midrange server.
  • Uses 7 out of 8 bits in the character.

EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)

  • Pronounced as EB-SEE-DIC
  • Primarily used in mainframe computers and high-end server


—  Support all the world language including  Asian Language

—  Example: Chinese, Japanese, Korean

—  Uses 16 bits instead of the usual 8 bit per character.

8. Component of motherboard Central Processing Unit (CPU) – control the operations of the computer. It interpret and carries basic instructions that operate a computer. It have 2 subcomponent that is Control Unit (CU) and Arithmetics Logic Unit (ALU).Expansion Slots– sockets where the circuit board or the adapter card can be inserted into the motherboard.RAM Slot – slot where computer memory (RAM) is placed on the computer’s motherboard.

Ports – the point where perihpherals attaches to a system unit.

  • Serial port – connect a device to the system unit by transmitting data one bit at a time.
  • Parallel port – connect devices by transferring information more than one bit at a time.
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) port – socket on a computer or peripheral devices into which a USB cable is plugged in. Can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector.
  • FireWire port – connect multiple types of devices that requires faster data transmission speeds. Can daisy-chain connect up to 63 devices to one FireWire port.

Connectors – a connector joints a cable to a peripheral.

9. User Interface Command-line user interface – requires user to type commands or press special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions that instruct the operating system what to do. It has to be typed one line at a time.Menu driven Interface– provides menus as means of entering commands.Graphical User Interface (GUI) – provides interface by means of clicking icon that represent computer resources.
9. Function of operating system Starting a computer– warm boot, cold bootProving a user interface– Command line, Menu Driven, GUIManaging data and programs

Managing memory

Configuring Devices



Learning Area Three – Computer Networks and Communications

No. Keyword(s) Referring to:
1. Computer Network LAN– covers a small region of space, typically a single buildingMAN– is a collection of LANs with the same geographical area (e.g. – same city)WAN – can be collections of LANs and / or MANs (e.g. – a country or even beyond the border)
2. Network Architecture Client/Server– Network in which the shared files and applications are stored in the server but network user (client) can still store files on their individual PCs.Peer-to-Peer (P2P) – network with all the nodes are acting as both serves and clients.
3. Network Topology Bus Topology–main physical pathway or central cable where all other devices are connected to it
Ring Topology– all computers and other devices are connected in a loop (or a circle)
Star Topology– a central host (usually a hub or a switch) which acts as the centre and all nodes connect to the host.
4. Network Standard 802.3– Ethernet LAN: physical cabling802.7– Broadband LAN: provides specifications for the design, installation and testing needed for broadband transmission.802.8 – Fiber-Optic  LAN and MAN

802.11 – Wireless LAN: uses the 2.4 GHz frequency to transmit data up to 2 Mbps

5. Protocols HTTP:  used to access, send and receive Hypertext Markup Language files (HTML) on the internetSMTP: used for transferring e-mail between computersFTP: for allowing files to be copies between devices

TCP: ensures the delivery of information packets across network.

IP: providing logical addressing called IP address to route information between network

6. Network Communication Technologies Internet – world largest computer network which connect millions computers all over the worldIntranet– internal network that uses Internet technologies. It is a small version of the internet that exist within an organizationExtranet – private network that uses Internet protocols to securely share part of a business’s information.
7. Transmission medium Physical transmission medium– usually uses wiresWireless transmission medium – uses air to transmit data


Learning Area Four – Multimedia

No. Keyword(s) Referring to:
1. Definition of Multimedia Presentation of information by using a combination of text, audio, graphics, video and animation.
2. Interactivity Linear interactivity– the user is a passive receiver. User does not have control over the multimedia content. Only one way communicationNon-linear interactivity – the user is an active receiver. User has control over the multimedia content. Two way communication occurs
3. Medium of delivery Web-based

  • Limited in picture size and low resolution video
  • Can be changed, damaged or deleted by irresponsible individuals
  • Information can be updated easily and cheaper.


  • Can store high end multimedia elements.
  • Can be permanently stored and are not changeable
  • Information can be outdated.
4. Multimedia Elements and File formats. Text: *doc, *.txt, *.rtfGraphics: *.jpg, *.gif, *.tiff, *.bmp, *.png, *.psdAudio: *.wav, *.midi, *.aif/aiff, *.au, *.wma, *.mp3

Video: *.avi, *.mov, *.mpeg, *.wmv

Animation: *.swf, *.gif, *.swi

5. Web editor What You See Is What You Get  (WYSIWYG)

  • Provide an editing interface that shows how the pages will be displayed in web browser.
  • More user friendly
  • Has no junk HTML
  • No HTML knowledge needed
  • Easy to insert a specific tag
  • Easy to visualize the design
  • E.g.: Microsoft FrontPage, Macromedia Dreamweaver


  • An editor where you work with Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) tags to create a web page.
  • Less user friendly
  • No junk HTML
  • Requires HTML knowledge
  • Difficult to insert a specific tag
  • Cannot visualize the design
  • E.g.: Notepad, PSPad
6. User Interface Principle -User interface is a way a computer program communicates with the person who is using it.Consistency – the interface design is in harmony and same applied to all screen in a software program.Clarity – clearness of labels on all icons

Context – relevant to a particular title and ideas

Navigation – user can move around the menu, help files or other screens

Search – enables user to search keywords or glossary

Personalisation – user can make their own personal or individual learning

Learnability – system provides support information and help files to make system easy to understand

Flexibility – user has the authority to navigate through all the sections

7. Multimedia production team Project Manager

  • Define the scope of the project and discuss with the client
  • Search for financial resources, equipment and facilities
  • Coordinate the production team

Subject Matter Expert

  • Do the research on the content of a multimedia program
  • Provide content for the multimedia content

Graphics Artist

  • Develop the graphic elements of the program such as background, buttons, photos collages, 3D objects, logo and animation.

Audio-Video Technician

  • Record voice, capture, edit and digitize the video

Instructional Designer

  • Decide on the best educational strategies and practices to present the information.


  • Write the program code lines or scripts using the authoring tool
8. Multimedia Production Phases Analysis Phase– developers interview the clients to find out their needs and write the problem statement and a proposal.Design Phase– developer design a flow chart and storyboardImplementation Phase – developers convert a design plan such as storyboard into a multimedia project

Testing Phase – to ensure the program runs correctly without errors.

Evaluation Phase – focuses on overall presentation and effectiveness of the multimedia.

Publishing Phase – package the presentation/project multimedia using suitable software.

9. Screen Design Principle -screen design refers to how the multimedia program will look when it is displayed on the computer screen.Contrast– the usage of different types of multimedia elements.Alignment – the arrangement of multimedia elements on the screen. For example, graphics or text should be arranged at the most suitable position.

Simplicity – the simple and easy way of presenting the multimedia program.

Proximity – the concept of grouping a similar or related element.

Emphasis – to creating the focus point on the screen

Repetition – repeating the same texture, colour, size of font and style in the multimedia program.


Learning Area Five – Programming

No. Keyword(s) Referring to:
1. Generations of programming language Low Level Programming Language1GL (Machine Language)– written in binary codes and each statement are corresponds to one machine action.2GL (Assembly Language) – human readable notation for machine language used to control specific computer operations. Written using symbolic instructions codes that are meaning abbreviations or mnemonics.

High Level Programming Language

3GL (Procedural language) – uses a series of English-like words that are closer to human language to write instructions. Example: PASCAL, FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, C, C++

4GL (Non-procedural language) – enables user to access data in a database. Limited to a very specific application.

5GL (Visual programming / Natural language) – provides a visual or graphics interface. Example: Prolog and Mercury

2. Programming approaches Structured programming (top-down approach)– map out the overall program structure into separate subsection from top to bottom.Object oriented programming (OOP) – combines data with functions to create objects. The object has relationships with one another. Example: Smalltalk, Java, Visual Basic, C++
3. Translator Compiler– source code à machine language. (Extra info: translate high level programming language to assembler or machine language. Example: COBOL, FORTRAN, C, C++)Interpreter– interpret and execute program directly from its source without compiling it first. Execute in real time when user execute it.Assembler – computer program for translating assembly language into machine language. Example: MACRO-80 Assembler and Microsoft MASM
4. Basic element Constant– the value never change at any time during the course of a programVariables– value inside may change at any time during the course of a programData type

  • Integer: Is an whole number (18, 79, 101, -6, -20)
  • Double: Numbers with decimal or contains fractional part (14.1, – 3.5, 200.10)
  •  String: Any value that contains a sequence of characters (Ahmad, sekolah)
  • Boolean: consist either True or False value
  • Currency: For currency use (RM, USD, Yen)

Operators – symbol or notation that tells a computer to perform certain actions or operation

  • Mathematical operators: plus (+), minus (–), multiply (*), divide (/)
  • Relation operators: equal to (=), greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=)
  • Logical operators: AND, OR, NOT
5. Flow Chart Terminator– beginning or end of a programFlow line and arrowhead– connect symbols and indicate the sequences of operation.Input / output – shows either an input operation or output operation

Process – shows process to be carried out

Decision – shows a decision to be made

6. Control Structure Sequence control– linear execution of codes within the program (in sequence order)Selection control– execution of codes involving decision making based on the situation given. There will be decision symbol present in the control.Repetition control – execution of codes where the codes are repeated while condition remains true. The arrowhead in the flow chart usually will return the part of the decision to repeat the process for true condition.
7. Program development phase Problem analysis phase

  • Programmer reviews and defines the problems.
  • Identify the data input, process and output for the program.

Program design phase

  • the programmer generates a top-down design model
  • Programmer writes the pseudo code for the program based on the top-down design model.
  • Programmer draws the flow chart that shows the data flow of the program.
  • Programmer also produces input and output user interfaces base on the existing form.

Coding phase – the process of writing the solution using computer programming language.

  • Programmer uses a program development tool which generates or provides some or all codes.

Testing and debugging phase – the process of locating and correcting of syntax and logic errors in a program.

  • Three types of error
  • Syntax error – caused by wrong spelling, case sensitive, punctuation and wrong words in command.
  • Logic error – expected output and actual output do no match for any set of data.
  • Run-time error – occurs while the program is running or executing.

Documentation phase – the process of written description and pseudo code of computer programs.


Learning Area Six – Information System (IS)

No. Keyword(s) Referring to:
1. Definition Data– raw material that are not organized, and has little valueInformation– processed data that are organized, meaningful and useful.Information System – a set of related components that collects data, processes data and provides information.
2. Component of IS Data– raw inputs for information system such as number, image, figure or soundHardware– set of physical equipment such as a processor, monitor, keyboard and etc.Software – a set of computer programs that provide step by step instruction

People – individuals who use the hardware, software and its output

Procedures – the set of instructions indicating the entire above component in order to process information and generate the expected outcome.

3. Types of IS Management Information System (MIS) – provide regular information about the daily activities of a business to the managerTransaction Processing System(TPS) – record business transaction and keep track of the daily transaction in the database.Decision Support System (DSS) – provides managers with information to make the best decisions. It also helps to analyse information, recognize problems and making decisions.

Executive Information System (EIS) – helps top-level managements to plan strategies. It is also used to forecast future trends.

Expert System (ES) – store knowledge and make logical suggestions for the user.

4. Hierarchy of Data

Bits à Bytes à Fields à Records à Files à Database

Bit – smallest unit of data the computer can store. It is in binary digit (1 and 0).

Byte – 8 bits = 1 byte = 1 character.

Field – smallest unit of meaning information in the database. It is also unit of data consist of one or more characters. Example: field that describe Name, Class, Address

Record – collection of related fields. Example: Data about a student [Name, StudentID, Age]

File – collection of related records.

Database – Structured collection of information on specific subjects.

5. Benefits of using database Minimise data redundancy– no need to repeat recording the same data.Data Integrity is assured– changes of data in database will be automatically for all files.Data can be shared – allow ease of sharing data especially over the network.

Information can be easily accessed

6. Features of table, query, form and report. Table– stores a collection of information about specific topic.Query– request for a specific data from a databaseForm – interface to enter information.

Report – summary of information from the database.

7. Primary key and foreign key Primary key– these keys must not be null values, and it is unique. It helps to avoid duplicationForeign key – the field that matches the primary key in another table. It may have duplicate values.
8. Phases of System Development Analysis Phase

  • Developers will perform problem analysis by finding out the needs of target users.
  • Developers also identify the input, process and output for the new system.

Design Phase

  • Based on the needs of target users, the system developers will design an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD).

Implementation Phase

  • Developers create database using database software.

Testing Phase

  • The system will be tested by the target users in the Testing Phase If there is any error detected; the system developers will fix the error.

Documentation Phase

  • developers will produce the documents for the program

Maintenance Phase – monitor the system performance and make changes when needed.

3 types of maintenance:

  • Corrective maintenance – to repair error in the system design.
  • Perfective maintenance – to improve a computer program.
  • Preventive maintenance – aim for future breakdowns and failures.
9. Data manipulation Update– to correct inaccurate data and to change old data with new dataInsert– to add new records in the file when new data are obtained.Delete – to remove a record from a file when it is no longer needed

Retrieve – to obtain specific information from the tables in order to refer or make changes the information.

Sort – To arrange the records according to ascending or descending order based on a specific field.

Filter – to exclude unwanted records from being retrieved by using certain condition or criteria in a query.

Search – To find specific records that fulfills the user’s requirements.


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