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Learning Area One – INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY
|1.||Computer Generations||1st generation (1940 – 1956)
2nd generation (1956 – 1963)
3rd generation (1964 – 1971)
4th generation (1971 – present)
5th generation (Present – beyond)
|2.||Positive impact of ICT on the society||The six positive impacts: Faster communication speedLower communication cost
Reliable mode of communication
Effective sharing of information
|3.||Negative impact of ICT on the society||The two negative impacts:Social problemsHealth problems|
|4.||Why ethics and law in computing is needed?||Respecting ownership– not steal other people’s work either by duplicating or distributingRespecting privacy and confidentiality– refraining oneself from invading other’s privacy without permission.Respecting property – do not tamper and change electronic information.|
|5.||Intellectual property protection||Patent for inventions: utility, design, plant patent, (protect inventions and improvements)Trademark for brand identity: Words, names, symbols, devices, images (represent products, goods or services)Copyright for material : Literary and artistic material, music, films, sounds recording and road casts
Design for product appearance: particular lines, contours, colour, shape, texture, ornamentations.
|6.||Methods of authentications||authentications– a process where users verify their identity.2 types:Biometric devices – a device that translate personal characteristic into digital code
Callback system – checking system that authenticates the user. (Commonly used in the bank operation and business transaction.)
|7.||Methods of verification||Verification– the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification.2 common methods:User identification – show passport, key-in user name & password, show exam slip.
Processed object – swipe security card to enter building, police check the driver’s license to identify valid driver.
|8.||Controversial content||Pornography– any form of media or material that depicts erotic behavior and is intended to cause sexual excitement.Slander – legal term for false and malicious statement.|
|9.||Internet filtering||3 common methods:Keyword blocking– uses a list of banned words to filter access to the siteWebsite / site blocking – uses software to prevent access to any sites on the list
Web rating system – browser gain access to a certain level of ratings
|10.||Cyber law acts in Malaysia||Digital Signature Act 1997– secures electronic communications especially on the internet.Computer Crimes Act 1997– gives protection against misuse of computers and computer criminal activities.Telemedicine Act 1997 – Ensure only qualified medical practitioners can practice telemedicine.
Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 – ensures that information is secure, network is reliable, and service is affordable all over Malaysia.
|11.||Computer Crimes||Computer Fraud– intention to take advantage or causing loss (mainly monetarily basis)Copyright Infringement– involves illegal copy or reproduction of copyright material by black market groupComputer Theft – unauthorized use of another person’s property
Computer Attack – to disrupt the equipment of computer systems …
|12.||Computer Security||Hardware Security– measure used to protect the computer hardwareSoftware and Data Security– measure used to protect software and the loss of data filesNetwork Security – measure used to protect the network system.|
|13.||Security Threat||Malicious code
Hacker – unauthorised person who access (hack) into computer
Natural and environmental threat – flood, fire, earthquake
Theft – steal money, goods, information and resources.
|14.||Security Measures||Data backup – a program of file duplication. It is necessary so that they can be recovered in case of an emergencyCryptography– process of hiding information by altering the actual information into different representation.Antivirus – program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in the computer memory, storage or incoming email files.
Anti-spyware – program used to remove spyware.
Firewall – hardware or software which functions in a networked environment to prevent some communications forbidden by the security policies.
Human aspect – refer to the user and also the intruder of a computer system.
|15.||Security Procedures||Data Protection
Detecting illegal access to systems
Preventing illegal access to system
Preventing illegal access to root
Patch – small updates to software
Learning Area Two – Computer System
|1.||Computer System||Hardware + Software + User|
|2.||Computer Hardware||Input Devices– texts, graphics, audio, videoOutput Devices – texts, graphics, audio, animations, videoStorage Devices – Primary (RAM & ROM), Secondary (Magnetic, Flash, Optical, ROM)
Processor – the main brain in the system unit
|3.||Computer Software||System Software – Operating System (Linux, Window XP, Mac OS X, Window Vista) & Utility program (Antivirus, File Manager, Screen Saver, Diagnostic utility)Application Software
|4.||Information processing diagram|
|5.||Machine cycle diagram|||
|6.||Data representation||8 bits = 1 byte = 1 character|
|7.||Character codes||ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)
Support all the world language including Asian Language
Example: Chinese, Japanese, Korean
Uses 16 bits instead of the usual 8 bit per character.
|8.||Component of motherboard||Central Processing Unit (CPU) – control the operations of the computer. It interpret and carries basic instructions that operate a computer. It have 2 subcomponent that is Control Unit (CU) and Arithmetics Logic Unit (ALU).Expansion Slots– sockets where the circuit board or the adapter card can be inserted into the motherboard.RAM Slot – slot where computer memory (RAM) is placed on the computer’s motherboard.
Ports – the point where perihpherals attaches to a system unit.
Connectors – a connector joints a cable to a peripheral.
|9.||User Interface||Command-line user interface – requires user to type commands or press special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions that instruct the operating system what to do. It has to be typed one line at a time.Menu driven Interface– provides menus as means of entering commands.Graphical User Interface (GUI) – provides interface by means of clicking icon that represent computer resources.|
|9.||Function of operating system||Starting a computer– warm boot, cold bootProving a user interface– Command line, Menu Driven, GUIManaging data and programs
Learning Area Three – Computer Networks and Communications
|1.||Computer Network||LAN– covers a small region of space, typically a single buildingMAN– is a collection of LANs with the same geographical area (e.g. – same city)WAN – can be collections of LANs and / or MANs (e.g. – a country or even beyond the border)|
|2.||Network Architecture||Client/Server– Network in which the shared files and applications are stored in the server but network user (client) can still store files on their individual PCs.Peer-to-Peer (P2P) – network with all the nodes are acting as both serves and clients.|
|3.||Network Topology||Bus Topology–main physical pathway or central cable where all other devices are connected to it|
|Ring Topology– all computers and other devices are connected in a loop (or a circle)|
|Star Topology– a central host (usually a hub or a switch) which acts as the centre and all nodes connect to the host.|
|4.||Network Standard||802.3– Ethernet LAN: physical cabling802.7– Broadband LAN: provides specifications for the design, installation and testing needed for broadband transmission.802.8 – Fiber-Optic LAN and MAN
802.11 – Wireless LAN: uses the 2.4 GHz frequency to transmit data up to 2 Mbps
|5.||Protocols||HTTP: used to access, send and receive Hypertext Markup Language files (HTML) on the internetSMTP: used for transferring e-mail between computersFTP: for allowing files to be copies between devices
TCP: ensures the delivery of information packets across network.
IP: providing logical addressing called IP address to route information between network
|6.||Network Communication Technologies||Internet – world largest computer network which connect millions computers all over the worldIntranet– internal network that uses Internet technologies. It is a small version of the internet that exist within an organizationExtranet – private network that uses Internet protocols to securely share part of a business’s information.|
|7.||Transmission medium||Physical transmission medium– usually uses wiresWireless transmission medium – uses air to transmit data|
Learning Area Four – Multimedia
|1.||Definition of Multimedia||Presentation of information by using a combination of text, audio, graphics, video and animation.|
|2.||Interactivity||Linear interactivity– the user is a passive receiver. User does not have control over the multimedia content. Only one way communicationNon-linear interactivity – the user is an active receiver. User has control over the multimedia content. Two way communication occurs|
|3.||Medium of delivery||Web-based
|4.||Multimedia Elements and File formats.||Text: *doc, *.txt, *.rtfGraphics: *.jpg, *.gif, *.tiff, *.bmp, *.png, *.psdAudio: *.wav, *.midi, *.aif/aiff, *.au, *.wma, *.mp3
Video: *.avi, *.mov, *.mpeg, *.wmv
Animation: *.swf, *.gif, *.swi
|5.||Web editor||What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG)
|6.||User Interface Principle||-User interface is a way a computer program communicates with the person who is using it.Consistency – the interface design is in harmony and same applied to all screen in a software program.Clarity – clearness of labels on all icons
Context – relevant to a particular title and ideas
Navigation – user can move around the menu, help files or other screens
Search – enables user to search keywords or glossary
Personalisation – user can make their own personal or individual learning
Learnability – system provides support information and help files to make system easy to understand
Flexibility – user has the authority to navigate through all the sections
|7.||Multimedia production team||Project Manager
Subject Matter Expert
|8.||Multimedia Production Phases||Analysis Phase– developers interview the clients to find out their needs and write the problem statement and a proposal.Design Phase– developer design a flow chart and storyboardImplementation Phase – developers convert a design plan such as storyboard into a multimedia project
Testing Phase – to ensure the program runs correctly without errors.
Evaluation Phase – focuses on overall presentation and effectiveness of the multimedia.
Publishing Phase – package the presentation/project multimedia using suitable software.
|9.||Screen Design Principle||-screen design refers to how the multimedia program will look when it is displayed on the computer screen.Contrast– the usage of different types of multimedia elements.Alignment – the arrangement of multimedia elements on the screen. For example, graphics or text should be arranged at the most suitable position.
Simplicity – the simple and easy way of presenting the multimedia program.
Proximity – the concept of grouping a similar or related element.
Emphasis – to creating the focus point on the screen
Repetition – repeating the same texture, colour, size of font and style in the multimedia program.
Learning Area Five – Programming
|1.||Generations of programming language||Low Level Programming Language1GL (Machine Language)– written in binary codes and each statement are corresponds to one machine action.2GL (Assembly Language) – human readable notation for machine language used to control specific computer operations. Written using symbolic instructions codes that are meaning abbreviations or mnemonics.
High Level Programming Language
3GL (Procedural language) – uses a series of English-like words that are closer to human language to write instructions. Example: PASCAL, FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, C, C++
4GL (Non-procedural language) – enables user to access data in a database. Limited to a very specific application.
5GL (Visual programming / Natural language) – provides a visual or graphics interface. Example: Prolog and Mercury
|2.||Programming approaches||Structured programming (top-down approach)– map out the overall program structure into separate subsection from top to bottom.Object oriented programming (OOP) – combines data with functions to create objects. The object has relationships with one another. Example: Smalltalk, Java, Visual Basic, C++|
|3.||Translator||Compiler– source code à machine language. (Extra info: translate high level programming language to assembler or machine language. Example: COBOL, FORTRAN, C, C++)Interpreter– interpret and execute program directly from its source without compiling it first. Execute in real time when user execute it.Assembler – computer program for translating assembly language into machine language. Example: MACRO-80 Assembler and Microsoft MASM|
|4.||Basic element||Constant– the value never change at any time during the course of a programVariables– value inside may change at any time during the course of a programData type
Operators – symbol or notation that tells a computer to perform certain actions or operation
|5.||Flow Chart||Terminator– beginning or end of a programFlow line and arrowhead– connect symbols and indicate the sequences of operation.Input / output – shows either an input operation or output operation
Process – shows process to be carried out
Decision – shows a decision to be made
|6.||Control Structure||Sequence control– linear execution of codes within the program (in sequence order)Selection control– execution of codes involving decision making based on the situation given. There will be decision symbol present in the control.Repetition control – execution of codes where the codes are repeated while condition remains true. The arrowhead in the flow chart usually will return the part of the decision to repeat the process for true condition.|
|7.||Program development phase||Problem analysis phase
Program design phase
Coding phase – the process of writing the solution using computer programming language.
Testing and debugging phase – the process of locating and correcting of syntax and logic errors in a program.
Documentation phase – the process of written description and pseudo code of computer programs.
Learning Area Six – Information System (IS)
|1.||Definition||Data– raw material that are not organized, and has little valueInformation– processed data that are organized, meaningful and useful.Information System – a set of related components that collects data, processes data and provides information.|
|2.||Component of IS||Data– raw inputs for information system such as number, image, figure or soundHardware– set of physical equipment such as a processor, monitor, keyboard and etc.Software – a set of computer programs that provide step by step instruction
People – individuals who use the hardware, software and its output
Procedures – the set of instructions indicating the entire above component in order to process information and generate the expected outcome.
|3.||Types of IS||Management Information System (MIS) – provide regular information about the daily activities of a business to the managerTransaction Processing System(TPS) – record business transaction and keep track of the daily transaction in the database.Decision Support System (DSS) – provides managers with information to make the best decisions. It also helps to analyse information, recognize problems and making decisions.
Executive Information System (EIS) – helps top-level managements to plan strategies. It is also used to forecast future trends.
Expert System (ES) – store knowledge and make logical suggestions for the user.
|4.||Hierarchy of Data||
Bits à Bytes à Fields à Records à Files à Database
Bit – smallest unit of data the computer can store. It is in binary digit (1 and 0).
Byte – 8 bits = 1 byte = 1 character.
Field – smallest unit of meaning information in the database. It is also unit of data consist of one or more characters. Example: field that describe Name, Class, Address
Record – collection of related fields. Example: Data about a student [Name, StudentID, Age]
File – collection of related records.
Database – Structured collection of information on specific subjects.
|5.||Benefits of using database||Minimise data redundancy– no need to repeat recording the same data.Data Integrity is assured– changes of data in database will be automatically for all files.Data can be shared – allow ease of sharing data especially over the network.
Information can be easily accessed
|6.||Features of table, query, form and report.||Table– stores a collection of information about specific topic.Query– request for a specific data from a databaseForm – interface to enter information.
Report – summary of information from the database.
|7.||Primary key and foreign key||Primary key– these keys must not be null values, and it is unique. It helps to avoid duplicationForeign key – the field that matches the primary key in another table. It may have duplicate values.|
|8.||Phases of System Development||Analysis Phase
Maintenance Phase – monitor the system performance and make changes when needed.
3 types of maintenance:
|9.||Data manipulation||Update– to correct inaccurate data and to change old data with new dataInsert– to add new records in the file when new data are obtained.Delete – to remove a record from a file when it is no longer needed
Retrieve – to obtain specific information from the tables in order to refer or make changes the information.
Sort – To arrange the records according to ascending or descending order based on a specific field.
Filter – to exclude unwanted records from being retrieved by using certain condition or criteria in a query.
Search – To find specific records that fulfills the user’s requirements.